Web Services and Web-Centric Links

Resources on Web-Centric Computing ©

Including HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, jQuery and Frameworks, AJAX, Mobile, XML, Web Services and Node.js Technologies

There is also an Older Version of these resources.

Last Updated 01/26/2022

I also tweet about new and interesting technical articles Follow msmenzin on Twitter as msmenzin

Margaret Menzin

Please be sure to check the General Tools section, in addition to the sections for specific topics.
This is a very large set of resources. I suggest that you look at the broad outline of the Table of Contents. The organization is:
  • General Tools
  • Client-side programming (HTML5, XHTML, CSS, JavaScript and the DOM, page and site design; jQuery and other frameworks, AJAX)
  • Server-side Programming (Perl, PHP, etc., but especially Node.js)
  • XML (XML, XSL, Xpath , RSS, etc), Web Services (SOA, SOAP, WSDL, UDDI) and Web2.0 (AJAX, mashups, semantic web)
You will notice that each of these broad topics is broken down into sections, and each section is organized as Documentation and Books, Tutorials and Articles, Links and Other Resources.

I also find it very useful to use ctl–f to find specific topics.

Web Centric Resources and Bookmarks

General Tools

General Resources: for Many Web Programming Topics

Summary Table of Sites Which Are Useful for Many Topics

Certain sites recur frequently: they provide information on multiple topics, and often at multiple levels. This table summarizes those sites and is always a good place to start ... Please note that there are also many sites which are useful for only one or two categories (e.g. CSS or Web Services) and which are listed under those topics. Further, even for the general sites, the topical sections often have links to more specific useful resources.


I-A td>A
Site Comments HTML and XHTML CSS Java-Script jQuery CGI Perl PHP XML Web Services Web2.0, Ajax Mobile
w3c Documentation for most technologies; hard to use unless you know something Doc N-I
    Doc     Doc Doc  Doc N-I
About Hard to find with search N N N N       N     N
w3schools Superb  tutorials; handy references well organized; a few errors N-I
N-I     N-I   N-I Ajax N-I
Tizag Similar to above tho' often less detailed; SQL tutorial too N
N N-I     N-I N-I   N    
U Minn. Duluth Superbly organized links;
Accessibility info too.
Link by
Link Link       Link Link      
HTMLGoodies Older site which still has lots of good articles N; Ref I-A; Scr N   N   N N     N
HotScripts Many advanced topics too     Scr Scr Scr Scr Scr     Scr Scr
html goodies
(Formerly Web Developer
Virtual Library)
Clear, but some older N-I N-I N-I N-I N N; Link N; Link N-I-E; Link  /td>   N-I
DevShed         I-E; Scr   A; Scr A;
A A A  
IBM developerWorks Wonderful articles if you have a specific topic I-A I-A I-A I-A I-A I-A I-A I-A I-A I-A I-A
DZone RefCardz Great reference cards for many languages and platforms I Ref I Ref I Ref I Ref     I Ref I Ref I Ref I Ref I Ref
Microsoft Developer Network Large, organized library; searchable; links to Stack Overflow I-A, Link I-A, Link I-A, Link I-A, Link I-A, Link Link Link I-A I-A I-A I-A
Stack Overflow Site to ask high level questions A A A A A A A A A A A
Mozilla Developer Network Large, serachable library with many tutorials and reference guides. Also Programming tutorials A A A A         A A A
Tutorialspoint Tutorials on all web technologies, and also N-I N-I N-I N-I   N-I          
Menzin Links at Simmons College This web page Link Link Link Link Link Link Link Link Link Link Link



N, I and A: have Novice, Intermediate and Advanced articles and tutorials

Doc: has documentation on topic

Ref: has reference charts on syntax

Link: links to other articles and tutorials and books

Scr: has sample scripts and downloadable code


Summary Chart (above) as a Word Document

World Wide Web Consortium (w3c)
The w3c develops most of the standards for the web. They are the source of definitive documentation on many subject, and have a few primers. Generally it is better to learn a little about a topic before you dig into the documentation.
OASIS develops most of the other standards.
ECMA owns the standard for JavaScript
ACM Many on-line books and courses
ISO makes some standards publicly available; others must be bought from ISO
IEEE Computer Society and ACM are the large professional organizations with tutorials etc.

Articles, Tutorials and Sites which Cover Multiple Subjects, starting with more elementary ones
On-line tutorials for many subjects - including CSS, XML, etc.  Usually a very clear survey of the issues, features, syntax. Read before you get into the grubby details for an excellent overview.
Elementary tutorials. Usually w3schools goes farther, but Tizag covers a few topics that w3schools miss.
Many free tutorials on both web development and other CS topics (check the Categories menu).A good complement to w3schools.
ZDNet has downloads (many free) for everything from security to ftp, in addition to their reviews of hardware.
U. of Minnesota - Duluth organizes everything
This well-organized site has tutorials on CSS, JavaScript, XML, PHP, Usability and Accessibility. Tools for every topic. Outstanding collection of resources; no description of level of articles.
Many clear primers and introductory articles on XHTML, CSS, Perl, etc. Unfortunately hard to find information from previous newsletters.
Articles (some current, some dated; mostly intermediate) and forums to ask about Java, HTML, XHTML, JavaScript, Perl, CGI etc. Searchable, but not organized. Requires free registration.
Useful family of sites covering all areas of web-centric computing; primers, tutorials, and newsletters ranging from elementary (e.g. HTML Goodies) to intermediate; all well-written, but some are dated
Includes Developer.com with very current technical articles on a random selection of web-centric technologies.
Articles on scripts for many languages and technologies - Perl, PHP, Python, JavaScript, XML. Well organized, but not encylopedic (e.g. not section on jQuery or Node). For example, click on PHP, then books and you are led to short paragraphs describing over 60 PHP books.
ASPN Active State Programmer Network
Resource for programmers in Perl, PHP, Python, etc. in which Active State offers open source languages and tools. The Newsfeeds tab links to RSS feeds from many tech news sources. Major site.
A List Apart (calls itself ALA)
Mainly articles on CSS code, but also some on JavaScript, XML, layout and web site design. Oriented to graphic designers.

More Advanced Resources
Stack Overflow is the go to resource for programming difficulties
Mozilla's Developer Center and set of developer's tools
as well as tutorials and guides
Alphaworks from IBM
Articles on many cutting edge technologies; clear but not novice and must use search function for your topic.
developerWorks learning site has articles on IBM products, but also excellent articles on emerging standards and technologies.
Microsoft Developer Network has lots of documentation and training
Amaya Home Page
Editor which includes extensions to MathML; Amaya is a w3c.org tool for editing on the web
A very large, major open source organization with many projects.
Apache is a web server; there are links to Xerces, Apache's XML editing tool, other XML projects, and many other projects and products.
npm originally the Node Package Manager
Now a huge repository of much more than node.js packages
SourceForge is a huge repository of open source projects with documentation
Major open source Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) with links and features
Including JsDelivr, cdnjs, Microsoft Ajax CDN
Oracle's developer site - information on JavaScript, Java, etc. and, of course, Oracle and MySQL
Cheat—sheets.org a huge list covering many, many computer topics, some out of date.
Git and GitHub section has a list of tutorials on these resources

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IT in general - not web specific

FTP Utilities and PutTY

My favorite free FTP client for Windows;supports both FTP and SFTP/SSH' easy to use and robust, except for perl files. Best of all, if you find a typo after you've uploaded a file you may use CoreFTP to edit it on the server.
Fetch is an excellent FTP client for Macs
Free FTP and SFTP utility- this one for Macs, also available at Apple
Choosing an FTP utility
FTP for various OS's; good discussion of the issues, but tools last updated in 2004.
Setting up your FTP utility
Free FTP and SFTP (Secure FTP) utility (from Source Forge)
SFTP for Macs with a graphical front-end
FTP clients, many with reviews. You may set the filter to 'free'.
PuTTY is a free implementation of Telnet for Windows and Unix systems. It may be downloaded at :
http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/ (Homepage for PuTTY)
or http://www.softpedia.com/get/Network-Tools/Telnet-SSH-Clients/PuTTY.shtml
Easy installation instructions are at http://www.wnec.edu/~snarmont/putty/
And the user manual is at http://www.tartarus.org/%7Esimon/puttydoc/index.html

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UNIX/LINUX, and bash/PowerShell

A few reminders in case you need to brush up
While you are on a UNIX/LINUX machine:
man commandName  gives the manual's sections on that command.
There are many LINUX (and UNIX) groups on Google
The following tutorials are all very, very basic:
Linux Links
Includes a place for newbies, but most of the searches link to books at Amazon
BigNoseBird Tutorial on vi has cheat sheet of vi editing commands and a primer
Learn Linux in 10 minutes including vi basics
Several basic Linux tutorials
Unix tutorial which is well organized
Clear tutorial which includes bash aka terminal or shell scripting
Tutorialspoint has an organized collection of Linux tutorials at different levels
User–friendly FAQs on Linux
Commonly used Unix Commands, also here and here
Command Line Bootcamp goes a bit beyond the primers
The One Page Linux Manual from digilife is useful after you have used Linux a bit
vi cheat sheet also from digilife
Working with Files under UNIX
Well organized and useful
Unix Guru universe — beginners start here
With references to more advanced material also
Many Unix/Linux cheat sheets are here and here along with ones for bash and PowerShell
Search Enterprise Linux resource for Linux sysadmis
More detailed tutorial on Linux; goes beyond the basic ones
bash or terminal or shell scripting is the command line interface on Unix; in Windows it is named PowerShell.
In Windows 10 you can get to PowerShell by holding the windows key and pressing r, and then typing cmd in the dialog box.
Here are some basic tutorials for bash and PowerShell and comparisons of them:
primer for command line interfaces
As mentioned above, Ryans tutorials will get you started and Tutorialspoint will take you deeper on shell scripting
Microsoft has a detailed tutorial on PowerShell, as well as a blog post on why it is great.
If you are already familiar with bash here and here are clear comparisons of bash and PowerShell commands.
A short introduction to PowerShell, but written before Windows 10
Infoword has a long PowerShell guide for SysAdmins

GIT and GitHub

GIT and GitHub
The Reference Manual and some tutorials for GIT and free book
There are tutorials on GIT at:
NewBoston series of video tutorials
short,clear video on Git and GitHub
tutorialspoint has a short, clear organized tutorial to get you started
What is GitHub?
10 GIT tutorials of various levels. The Pro Git one is a whole book, but very clear. The Easy Version Control with Git is a good way to start, and the Git Magic will give you the next level of detail.
Github has a short help series to get you going
Get to know Git course from scoth.io; elementary to advanced
There are mobile and desktop versions
There are cheat sheets at:
Dzone has a refcardz that is just a bit more than a tutorial
Cheat sheet after you get going
Cheat sheet and best practices from JRebel
GitLab and BitBucket are alternatives to GitHub
And there are other choices for code hosting

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Tech News Sources

Current news; you should also get their newsletter with weekly updates.
If you are a student, you should join; student memberships are a bargain.
This site has more news about the IEEE than about technology.
Local societies and local computer societies also frequently have newsletters
Reviews of software, hardware and tech toys; good place to find free utilities (e.g. for FTP)
as well as to comparison shop for new computers, digital cameras, etc.
CNET check out both the News and Reviews
Information Week catering to IT folk
Tech News World News about technoloy, but not very techy
SlashDot which likes to describe itself as ':news for nerds'
Wired.com now has some of its news for subscribers only

The following sites offer newsletters geared to web-centric computing:
eweek primarily news; many topics
Informit (self-serving) white papers from vendors
InfoWorld News, reviews, opinions.
ComputerWorld, sister to InfoWorld, is less oriented to web development issues
TechRepublic.com News, articles on web related topics;
DZone publishes articles on topics ranging from web development to the cloud; also their excellent RefCardz

Several places maintain surveys of browser usage
w3schools has monthly updates
w3counter also has monthly updates
upsdell has weekly updates with details on versions
wikipedia explains why there are different estimates, but updates less often

Several places regularly track the popularity of programming languages
TIOBE Community Bulletin Board Lists frequency of queries about various languages including web-centric ones
pypl maintains a similar list based on frequency of tutorial searches
statistics times includes both of the above
Red Monk ranks based on Git Hub (previously on Stack Overflow) postings, but these are all highly correlated
IEEE Spectrum publishes an annual list

The following excellent blogs and tweets are interesting for people interested in design and web standards:
About.com maintains lists of folks who blog about web development and about HTML and CSS
A List Apart - focused on design
Remy Sharp - also focused on design - HTML5, CSS3; He tweets at @rem. Remy Sharp is the co-author of Introducing HTML5 (with Bruce Lawson) and also writes for html5doctor
Peter-Paul Koch, who writes keeps the best tables on compatibility of browsers. His quirksmode.org site is invaluable and you can follow him on twitter @ppk
Bruce Lawson sometimes writes for webstandards.org and he blogs, but his tweets are usually personal. He also is an Opera evangelist.
Adactio is by Jeremy Keith, who has written great books on DOM scripting and works to promote web standards. He also writes for webstandards.org as does Bruce Lawson. On Twitter Keith is @adactio
Blog written by John Resig, creator of jQuery. On Twitter he is @jeresig Resig is more interested in JavaScript and jQuery, while some of the earlier people listed on this page are more interested in design (HTML5/CSS3) issues.
Jeffrey Zeldman is one of the early vocal advocates for web standards, and has published popular books on the subject. On twitter he is @zeldman
Blog by Christain Heilman, another developer. His tweets @codepo8 are sometimes personal, but often technically valuable.
UIE.com Jared Spool is the chief here and he tweets as @jmspool; another excellent source is Alertbox or Nielsen Norman Group from the justly famous Jakob Nielsen. Both also publish excellent newsletters.
John Resig is the creator or jQuery. He tweets as @jeresig
w3fools maintains a list of important tweeters near the bottom of their page
zdnet links to 100 technology experts on twitter, with short descriptions
For accessibility issues the best newsletter is from Laura Carlson, (but Jared Spool and Jakob Nielsen focus on usability and hence have a lot to say about accessibility.) Subscribe by emailing her at lcarlson@d.umn.edu. Her weekly newletter also updates other design issues.
Luke Wroblewski writes about responsive web design and tweets as @lukew
Addy Osmani tweets and blogs. He worked on Web Start Kit at Google. Some are quite advanced.
Zoltan Hawryluk blogs about many things, with a graphics interest. Advanced.
Ariya Hidayat tweets and blogs with a JavaScript focus. Advanced
Cody Lindley is a front end developer who tweets at @codylindley
Ben Nadel @BenNadel tweets and blogs about advanced JS, frameworks, and Node.js
Axel Rauschmayer @rauschma tweets and blogs about JS and his wonderful books
Nathan Smith @nathansmith tweets on UI and JavaScript (and unrelated topics)
Ryan Florence @ryanflorence tweets about React
Also, I tweet @msmenzin

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Issue in Site and Page Design

Information on Color and Graphics

The RGB Monitors
HTMLgoodies explains how colors are specified in HTML and why; scroll down for tutorials and articles
You want to use browser safe, or non-dithering, colors
Lynda.com is the most famous site for browser safe colors, You may view the colors arranged by hue (also found here) or by value (similar intensity/impact.), also found here
Other pages with browser-safe colors may be found at
Cloford has some nice info and charts
The Visual QuickStart Guide on XHTML and CSS
U. Illinois
HTMLgoodies has a site on color and graphics
    Links to free graphics, tools, resources etc. near the bottom of the page
About.com and those named and links to all browser safe colors
Cloford.com - Charts on colors, special characters, country codes
Color pickers, if you are willing to risk a non-browser-safe color, may be found at:
A browser neutral site is at https://colorpicker.me/#0b2c97
There is a simple color picker, including HSL approaches is at w3schools
There are several color picker extensions for Chrome, including ColorZilla and Eyedropper
There are color-picker extensions for Firefox, also including ColorZilla and Eyedropper
Dmitry's Color Lab
Excellent advice and information about color and design; several pages
Designing a Color Graphics Page
This includes a checklist for situations where color is critical ? e.g. for air traffic controlers; very detailed discussion of luminence , contrast, color schemes, etc.
This site also has information on Using color in information display graphics
Optimizing Web Graphics
A bit dated, but many wonderful tools and links, and no one minds a fast download
Color Wheel and color theory
Many useful links to tools and other resources
Tools for re-sizing images
How to add video to your web pages
Sources of free images and icons
HTML Writers' Guild -Links to several libraries of buttons,rules, etc.
Realm Graphics - 150 icons by type; Good source
Clip-art.com- Enormous collection of free clip art
Bullets, dots, etc.
Yahoo 's list of icon collections- Always a good place to start
Index of bullets - Useful site for colored bullets
Webshots Photos - Enormous collection of photos, very well categorized; has several of everything you can think of; may also use it them as screen savers
GraphixKingdom - Large collection of clip art by category
Icon Browser - Large collection of icons, but not categorized, so time-consuming to use
Barry's Clip Art - Another huge, categorized source
Animated smilies

Page Design - Including Usability

Don't Make Me Think: A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability 2nd Edition by Steve Krug 2005
Good place to start if you've never thought about navigation etc.
Designing Interfaces by Jenifer Tidwell published by O'Reilly 2005
From author's experiece designing interfaces for the Math Works; very sophisticated; will be most appreciated by tose with a visual deign sense
The Non-Designer's Design Book by Robin Willams published by Pechpit Press 1994
I like this outstanding book even better than her Non-Designer's Web Book; basic principles on layout, mixing fonts etc. Short and wonderful
Web Style Guide: Basic Design Principles for Creating Web Sites; Second Edition by Patrick J. Lynch and Sarah Horton; Yale University Press 2002
Classic guide for graphic designers; also available on- line (see below)
The Basics of Page Layout
Basic - which is a good place to start. Links at the bottom to other information
On the same site is good advice about balance, contrast,etc. and also about creating designs which serve the sites' goals.
Things Every Web Designer Should Know
Also reminds you about guides or making your site efective, and reminds you of how little we scan rather than read on?line.
Design Principles: Alignment
Compare screenshots of various alignments with a brief discussion of them.
Lynch and Horton on Page Design
This chapter of their on?line book is meaty, not difficult, but not casual reading.
Visual vs structural approach to page design
Graceful degration and progressive enhancement
For advanced coders;article continues.
Has articles on writing for the web and also on layout and many other topics including maps
AListApart is a professional web designers' site but their articles are quite accessible.
On-line writing style
From Lynch and Horton's classic book
How to write headlines, page titiles and subject lines
WQriting effective links
The F-shaped pattern for reading on the web
From Jakob Nielsen, one of the great gurus of usability. (Note: This pattern is know for web pages, but may not apply to smartphones.)
How visuals draw attention
Interesting and subtle
Tips for fast-loading pages
Useful for large pages/sites; from Mozilla
Checklist for creating web pages
The all important back button
Links near the bottom lead to more articles about navigation
Slash - getting URLs right
Screen resolution and page layout
Checkboxes vs. Radio Button
Article by Jakob Nielsen, the great guru of usability.
His web site has many articles on usability, including
The Top 10 mistakes of web design and the all-important Usability 101. Also annual lists of best and worst web sites.
Useability checklist for forms
Good advice!
Many articles, templates and lots of good advice about usability.
Includes information about the process of developing a site
as well as on planning, writing, programming and usability testing.
A treasure trove of information.
Interaction design
A very sophisticated article from the usability experts at User Interface Enginneering
They also offer a free newsletter with usability tips.
Please also see tools for accessibility below

Site Design.
Please be sure to also read about Responsive Web Design (design for all screen sizes and devices) in the CSS Section

Information Architecture for the World Wide Web 3rd Edition by Peter Morville, Louis Rosenfeld, 2006
For designing very large sites; very current - tagging etc.
Art and the Zen of Web Sites
Humorous but very on-target advice (OK, we don't advocate tables for layout any more, but the rest of the advice is great.)
Dmitry's Design Lab
Great advice on site design, navigation, etc. Great place to start
Web Style Guide
On-line version of Horton and Lynch's classic book, now in its 3rd edition
Good advice on everything from typography to navigation and on to site design
A complete course! Also further references
Navigation advice
From evolt.org
Where Am I?
Good advice on navigation
Navigational State of Confusion
The difference between navigational and iterative tasks ? and links to many other design articles
What makes for a good site?
How to drive your readers away
Showcase of 83 navigations
Beautiful graphics but the coding is variations on a few themes
Articles on site design, layout and graphic design
From AListApart (site oriented to graphic artists).
Designing the Obvious
Excerpt from Hoekman's book of the same name; continues at part 2 and part 3
Optimizing Flow in Web Design
Excerpt from Andrew King's book of the same title
Choosing a CMS - What you Need to Know
Choosing a CMS (Content Management System): needed for large or active sites
Drupal Powerful open source CMS
David Mercer's book Drupal: Creating Blogs, Forums, Portals, And Community Websites has been well reviewd, as has his book on Drupal 6
Typo3 is another open source CMS
Google WebMaster Tool to generate a site map, and many other webmaster tools

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Tools for Accessibility - e.g. for color-blind and low-vision users

General tools and articles
Web Accessibility Initiative
W3c's links to everything you could need to know about accessibility problems on-line and how to address them, inclduing standards for accessible web design, accessibility principles and barriers, tools and tests, and tutorials.
The w3c.org also has a Content Accessibility Curriculum on accessibility
Mozilla has a series of excellent articles and tutorials on its site
Google has a similar site
Google also has a page on reviewing a site for accessibility
Google and Microsoft use the axe tool for checking accessibility. This site has a suite of tools to help with development and testing.
pally is a similar tool.
ally is a similar tool, which integrates with LMS like Moodle and Blackboard.
The U.S. government has accessibility standards and advice on creating accessible websites
The Carnegie Museums have a very helpful website on accessibility, with everything from an overview of the types of disabilities to consider to best practices and specific code to incorporate on your site.
Ryerson University in Canada has published several free books on this topic.
Accessibiility standards, issues, recommendations
This site, from the U. of Minnesota - Duluth, is one of the most complete references available on this subject. They also publish a newsletter on web design, with special attention to accessibility and usability. It is an excellent go-to place for specific topics, with sections for buttons, forms, links, carousels and slide shows, semantic HTML, tables, and, of course, testing and checklists.
The DO—IT Project at the U. Washington has a host of materials about universal design and making education accessible
And teaching accessibility issues. Their video on teaching accessibility is a model for what can be done.
For example, they have a video on how to make videos accessible.
Web Standards
Webstandards.org is devoted to affordable accessibility for all.
The Web Almanac has an excellent chapter on accessibility
Bruce Lawson has an accessibility checklist
His material is always worth reading
Tetralogical has a short but useful checklist on accessibility
websitesetup.org has an accesibility checklist
Articles on ARIA compliant accessible forms and links:
ovl.design shows how to make your form inputs accessible.
Another similar article is at, by Ire Aderinokun, who writes quite a bit about these issues and may be followed on twitter.
A similar article, but which includes more html elements, is from css-tricks
Smashing magazine has a set of tutorials on accessible web page components. This is very complete, but requires some sophistication.
deque.com shows you how to make your links accessible.
Scott A O'Hara has made a number of accessible links and other widgets available to us
Not surprisingly, the w3c has information about landmarks and sectioning and roles for accordians
freecodecamp.org has an article on accessible forms.
CSS and accessibility is discussed by:
Peter-Paul Koch who is always worth following
Jared Spool, who is also worth following, with attention to css grid. This article continues on Mozilla's page on the same topic.
Pages which change dynamically can be problematic. Solutions to this are described at:
bitsocode.de shows you how to make pages which change aria-compliant.
You can find aria compliant accordians and more accordians
How to use microdata to improve accessibility
Hiding elements and accessibility
A plug-ins for accessible jQuery — tool tips, accordians, hide and show, etc.
An older but useful article about making ajax work for accessibility.
An article on keyboard accessibility and jQuery.
Please also see the section on the links on semantic HTML

Tools related to vision
Ben Robertson has a fine article on designing for screen readers
DZone has a similar, shorter article
Microsoft has instructions on how to simulate color blindness in your browswer
This works particularly well in Firefox, on a test page
They also have tools geared towards Edge
Toptal has a site to filter and test your page which is easy to use.
Color Deficient Vision
See how your site looks to someone who is color-blind with links (at bottom) to transforming tools.
Color-blind simulator
Testing and tools for color blind users
Microsoft reference on color blindness
Older but very useful article
Web documentation for aural style sheets
From w3.org
Creating accessible tables from the w3c.org
How to create tables (for tabular information, not for layout) which work for Braille readers, cell phones, etc.
This is a free service which validates for conformance to accessibility rules.
Lynx Viewer
Lynx is a text-only browser.

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Search Engines and Getting Found

SearchEngines.com - search engine rankings and search engine optimization tips.
Largest site on search engines; newsletters etc. How to get found and news
Search Engines: What's the Difference?
Google vs. Yahoo vs. Ask
Goodies to Go! Overview of Search Engines
How Search Engines Work
Several pages, including good information you'll want to know on how they rank pages
Major Search Engines and Directories
Major search engines and how to get listed
Before You Write Meta Tags
Uses for meta-tags, including general and internal search engines
w3schools has examples.
How to write meta-tags for search engines and for site management
The impact of links and link text on search engine placement
Getting found
Search Engine Optimatization techniques a short introduction
10 Tips for Optimizing a Web Page for Search Engines
A clear explanation in a longer article
Google's Adwords Tool and Keywords Tool
Allows you to test keywords and also make suggestions. Invaluable!
Google has tips for using the tools, as does ProBlogger
Google also has a PageRank checker
What is a link farm
And why being listed on one makes it harder to get found and how to stay away from them
Web Analytics
Introduction to the terms in web analytics ? which is about analyzing the visits to your site.
See also what they can track and many links on both pages

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CSS or Cascading Style Sheets 

Books and Documentation for CSS

Please note that many sites are a combination of tutorials, articles, documentation, examples and information about tools. All these are found in the Links and Resources for CSS section, so be sure to check out that section too.
As of 2021 the current version of CSS is CSS3, but in late 2020 a group formed to work on CSS4 and CSS5.

Books, in addition to CSS coverage in (X)HTML books and DOM coverage in JavaScript books
CSS: The Definitive Guide 4th Edition by Eric A. Meyer and Estelle Weyl published by O'Reilly 2017
Sophisticated and best after you know some CSS; also a fine reference
Eric Meyer has also written "CSS Pocket Reference" 5th edition, published in 2018.
The Zen of CSS Design: Visual Enlightenment for the Web The Zen of CSS Design: Visual Enlightenment for the Web 2005
Book version of the famous web site; lots of information
The w3c maintains a short list of books and tutorials on CSS.
They also date the material and tell you what level it is at.
The superb site at the University of Minnesota has a list of good CSS books, although they don't specify the level of the books.
Douglas Bowman has a page of books and favorite sites worth following
Bowman is the Creative Director at Twitter and well worth following.
W3C on CSS has all the documentation and standards
Documentation there has detailed information about how the cascade is implemented, colors, media queries, etc.
CSS3 was introduced in 2010 and is implemented on all desktop browsers; You can check quirksmode.com or caniuse.com for odd features on mobile browsers.
CSS Validator from w3c.org
CSS Cheat Sheets
A particularly good one for CSS3 is fromVeign courtesy of Smashing Magazine.
Dzone has CSS refcards.
Dzone requires a free registration, but has excellent cards. Its cards on the core, selectors, and the box model are older but still excellent.
The w3 table of extended color keywords in CSS3, as part of their color module spec.
Case sensitivity:
Theoretically,per the w3c, css is case insensitive, including for properties and values, but in per Mozilla this may not always happen in practice, especially in XHTML.
A selection of CSS cheat sheets and reference tables:
htmlcheatsheet.com has a compact cheat sheet
As does lesliefranke.com
websitesetup.org has a very clear cheat sheet
hackr.io is similar
hostinger.com embeds their cheat sheet in a tutorial
There is also a Veign cheat sheet for CSS2 but still useul.
htmlhelp has an organized, clickable list of properties
And CSS structure and rules
The w3.org has Web documentation for aural style sheets
CSS Reference from w3schools
Their tutorials are very useful, and so are their references.
When you click on a property group you get a table which tells you which version of CSS first got that selector, etc.

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Tutorials & Articles for CSS

Learning CSS
Books,tutorials, etc. on CSS from w3c.org
Starting with HTML + CSS
A first look at CSS from w3c.org; good place to start.
CSS Tutorial
From w3schools.com; another excellent introduction.
Tutorial Republic has an excellent set of tutorials
From beginning to advanced, and with reference guides.
htmldog.com has a tutorial
There is more information about things like rounded corners, but no CSS grid, so perhaps better for graphic designers
Tutorialspoint is similar
Mozilla has an excellent set of tutorials and reference material
Like all of Mozilla's site, it assumes some experience in programming, but is very clear.
Mozilla's very wonderful Web Technology for Developers is being reorganized, so you may find yourself being redirected.
Dave Raggett's Introduction to CSS
This older article does not cover styling tables, but is a fine place to start.
RichInStyle.com CSS2 tutorial is another good but older tutorial.
Beginner's Guide to CSS is similar
Linking your style sheets to your html page
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) By Example: CSS Resources
Fine set of tutorials and links
Tutorial from EchoEcho.com
Basic, clear. Many links on site: tools, forums, reference links.
MaxDesign's tutorials
This is a wonderful set of tutorials from beginner through intermediate; they set the instructions in the context of the standards so as to lead to real understanding.
HTML Goodies' Reference has clear articles but no tutorials
Articles on how to link, classes vs id etc basic but very clear
Tutorial on internationalization and CSS3 from w3c.org
The Brain Jar on Positioning with CSS
There are other tutorials here too - e.g. on DOM and on using CSS
CSS Grid is an important tool for Responsive Web Design, and also for simplifying positioning.
There are tutorials at:
Elastic and Fluid CSS is an alternative tool now that screens come in so many sizes.
There is a clear short introduction at elastic layouts, with the code.
Speckyboy has many tools and examples
Should you abandon tables for layout?
Almost always and here's why
Case study of using CSS and JavaScript to design a menu bar

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Links and Resources for CSS - Including Sample Layout Sources, Best Practices and Browser-Specific Tags

W3C home page on CSS
Links to articles, tutorials, documentation, roadmaps of what's coming, news, etc.
Learning CSS
Books and articles on learning CSS
W3C Core Styles
8 style sheets on w3c's server which you can link to from your pages.
CSS Based Design
By Jeremy Keith, author of the wonderful DOM Scripting book
Many references on CSS
From Web design Group at htmlhelp.com; also a link to further references and a CSS Checker
U. of Minnesota - Duluth organizes everything
This well-organized site has tutorials on CSS, information on (literally) everything from headers to footers and everything in between.
They also have links to their sites on JavaScript, XML etc.
Open Directory - Computers: Data Formats: Style Sheets: CSS
Many links for HTML, XHTML and CSS
CSS Pointers
Another large compendium of articles, FAQs, tools, etc. For the Pros.
WDVL: Designing CSS Web Pages
Tutorials and recommended ' Designing CSS Web Pages', 2-part article on knowing who your audience is and how to design for it. Also CSS Resources at other sites
All CSS articles from About.com
Sidebars on CSS etc. for developers
These tools disappeared from Netscape's DevEdge site, and Mozilla has brought them back into its archives; the archives also have their CSS Central
CSS Validator From w3c
Tells you what a complex selector does
Site for Eric Meyer, the great guru of CSS
He wrote the books on CSS (or at least two of the best). If you're going to be a power user it's worth checking his blog. You can also subscribe to the CSS-discuss mailing list and check out his cutting edge site.
CSS Zen Garden
This is the most amazing site of examples of what you can do with CSS. One page is transformed by over 900 style sheets. (Check the archives.)These are all done by professional graphic artists, but we can all admire them. They also have an excellent list of resources.
Daily Fun is similar to Zen Garden - i.e. many stylesheets for one page, but I prefer the ZenGarden.
Another amazing list of CSS resources is at Holy CSS Zeldman!
In addition to many CSS links, there are also links on JavaScript and AJAX.
It seems to me that you can find everything here: tutorials, books, sites, galleries at other sites (e.g. CSS Zen Garden), hints, etc.
has many articles on CSS, HTML and JavaScript,
including a Beginner's Guide to CSS, and some simple templates .
Advanced CSS Resources
Lots of good information, including properties, a clear explanation of the cascade, and tables on browser support. You may need to click through lots of pages to get to what you want.
Litmus, formerly CSS Vista
Tool to test your CSS in IE and Firefox at the same time. Account is free.
CSS Documentation and articles
Many topics and useful resources. Covers CSS1 and CSS2.
A trick/tool for debugging CSS
Examples of well-designed sites
New York Public Library Style Guide
CSS Pointers Authoring Tools
Also has information about browsers and XSL tools.
A site for developers; be sure to check their XHTML page too, as its FAQs include CSS questions.

CSS Best Practices

Good starting advice
Good classic advice (e.g. use comments, keep things tidy) which everyone should follow.
Introductory best practices with very elegant style for organizing and commenting your CSS.
Some former Yahoos have provided advice, starting out with 30 CSS Best Practices for Beginners
This also leads to a tutorial on object oriented CSS, which is intermediate level.
Another Yahoo offers Best practices for CSS and HTML. This is a rich site with many resources CSS (tempaltes, grids, etc.) and a tutorial for object oriented CSS.
Be sure to watch the video from this author Breaking good habits and see the related article on "Best Preactices Are Kiling Us"by another Yahoo. Luke Wroblewski, who is always worth listening to, has blogged about this.
CSS3 Best Practices emphasizes broswer support charts and how to test for browser specific prefixes. Good general advice, too.
Another good set of CSS3 best practices
Google CSS guide codifies the best practices they use.
Please note that many people, including me, disagree with omitting the optional closing tags. It develops very poor habits, especially if you ever need to use XHTML or polyglot code. There is a discussion of this issue here. Otherwise, this is a great guide.
Microsoft provides coding practices for large team projects.
Excellent advice for people who work on large projects or on projects others may need to maintain. Great examples of useful comments. Like others, she emphasizes the use of multiple classes, and she discusses matters such as whether or not to alphabetize.
Yahoo provides best practices for speeding up your site
So[histicated advice for those building large or complex sites.

Sample layouts:

Free_CSS has over 250 free templates
Some of the later ones are fluid layouts; they have a section devoted to responsive layouts. It takes time to go through these layouts, but they have pretty much everything.
Max Design has downloadable layouts
His layouts are accessible and often responsive.
It is also worth going to the home page for recent articles and slide decks on CSS and HTML.
My Responsee has a large collection of layouts
It is easy to scroll through and they show the layout for various screen sizes.
cssauthor has an 500 responsive laouts which you can scroll through
Dreamtemplate has some free templates in additon to their subscription service.
CSS Layouts
On-going blog about types of layouts, problems and hacks. Not elementary and some of it (e.g. about IE) is dated..
A few basic layouts with explanations
From the always elegant CSS Play. Includes responsive layouts
Layouts which are heavy on images are at FreshTemplate
Other image heavy layouts are from templated.co and justfreetemplates' and html5up and Wix. Most on these sites are responsive.
Speckyboy focuses on Fluid and elastic grid templates. and on responsive ones.
CSS Showcase
Gallery of very professional looking menus, tabs and layouts; also articles
CSS Drive
Reviewed and unreviewed designs. You need to work a bit to get to the code.
Sample table layouts styled with CSS may be found at:
TutorialsPoint has a dozen basic w3.css layouts, a set of table layouts from w3schools
Freehtmldesigns has elegant designs, but you may need to link at codepen.io to find the code.
uicookies has many free designs, but you'll need to read their FAQs to find out how to reach the code.
W3C Core Styles
Very basic

CSS in Different Browsers

Please also see Browsers section under XHTML Resources for information on usage and places to download all browsers.

Which CSS Properties are implemented in which browsers?
Far and away the best CSS content and selector implementation tables are from quirksmode.com
This site also has CSS Rules Compatability tables are from quirksmode.com, with information about what browser support the ability to change rules in the style sheets.
It is also the best source for mobile browser capabilties.
Access to all quirksmode tables for DOM and HTML5 implementations in various browsers is also nearby.
Table showing which browser support which CSS features
Very useful
The w3schools maintains a table of CSS properties implemented in various browsers.
The alphabetized table is easy to use, but it does not include information about mobile browsers.
Microsoft has detailed tables about IE implementations for various versions of IE.
Implementation of CSS3 pseudoclasses table goes only as far as IE7.
A quick table of CSS properties and selectors implemented in various browsers.
Easy to use and also has a similar table for new HTML5 tags (web forms) and capabilities (web applications) but it appears not to include mobile borwsers.
Upsdell keeps current information on CSS in browsers and on related (HTML5 and JS) issues.
They do not discourage broswer sniffing, but they are a useful source for staying current.
Fonts commonly found in various browser is a useful chart - so your choices are more likely to not default to the browser's choices
Legacy browsers and legacy code
In the bad old days we did a lot of "browser sniffing" and hacked to get similar styling on various browsers. Fortunately, browser sniffing and browser hacks are now considered poor style. Instead, use Modernizer to detect capabilities.
These links may be useful if you need to maintain or update code from that era.
Old Hacks for various browsers and CSS
This enormous list of hacks also has (near the top of the page) links to sites which summarize hacks.
It also lists various specific (recent) hacks with their effects and the browsers they target.
This wiki is maintained by CSS-discuss.
What browsers support in CSS and how to Display Stylesheets Dynamically
What browsers support what features and links on work-arounds for older browsers. Useful for legacy broswers, but does not include even IE8.
The Box Model Hack
One of the oldest and most famous hacks.
Links to Brain Jar's clear explanation, and others.
CSS in Different Browsers
Long article (current as of 2006) discussing the issue.
No tabular summary, but links to those for current browsers at Webdevout and for 2003 and older browsers at Blooberry
Browser support for CSS and CSS hacks, last updated as 2009.
Survey of font usage by browser
Another useful source. See also their summary.
Equivalent fonts for PCs and Macs
Nice +    - chart makes it easy to choose
CSS2 Generated Content
:before and :after; does not work in IE6 or IE7

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CGI and Server-Side Scripting

General - Including Information on HTTP and TCP/IP and resources for multiple languages

Older (1996) but very useful explanation; well organized and probably has all you need to know and then some.
TCP/IP Resources
Great list of FAQs, tutorials, and books. Kept up to date.
Overview of TCP/IP and the Internet
Current description. Starts with the history (OK to skip) but gives all the details you need if you are not a network administrator.
Primer on TCP/IP
Older (1997), but a good place to start
Another older (1998) Primer on Internet technology
Daryl's TCP/IP Primer
Goes deeper than a primer; kept up to date.
Older (1998) course on managing servers
Classic references; good description of client-server model, http, mime types etc.
Who owns what domain name, which port is what, and what the language abbreviations are
Sites with Scripts and Advice for Multiple Languages (Perl, PHP, Python, etc.)
Which Scripting and Programming Languages are People Searching about?
Monthly survey on queries about Perl, PHP, JavaScript, Java etc.
Developer.com articles on Perl, PHP, etc.
Excellent very current intermediate level articles, but you need to search. Better yet, subscribe to some of their free newsletters and be notified of new articles.
Resource for programmers in Perl, PHP, Python, etc. Major site.
Articles and scripts for many languages - Perl, PHP, Python, JavaScript, XML
O'Reilly maintained site with articles and book excerpts on all the open source technologies - Linux Apache, Perl/PHP/Python, MySQL. Links to Safari books (also available free through the ACM is you are a member).
CGI Resources
Links to very many CGI scripts, mostly in Perl, and tutorials (rated by users)
DevShed Perl Tutorials, Scripts, etc.
Links to user submitted and rated scripts and articles in many languages; most free
Intermediate to advanced articles. Includes the Mother of Perl site. Also PHP (with links at the bottom) and now starting on python
Matt's HTTP Cookie Library
And his CGI resource of thousands of CGI scripts - mostly in Perl

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CGI, including Regular Expressions - see also Perl folder

CGI Programming with Perl by Gunther Birznieks, Scott Guelich, and Shishir Gundavaram 2nd edition publishd by O'Reilly 2000
Very useful book
Learning Perl 3rd edition by Randal L. Schwartz and Tom Phoenix, publishd by O'Reilly 2007
Excellent way to learn enough Perl to write CGI scripts easily
The Web Wizard's Guide to Perl and CGI, The Web Wizard's Guide to PHP, both by David A. Lash, 2002
These books won't make you a great guru, but they will get you going very quickly; well-written
The next few links are overview' of CGI
Client and server
Introduction to terms
WDVL: Table of Contents on Web Programming
Tutorial on server-side programming and sending info from HTML forms. Excellent introduction . Definitely the place to start if you don't know the difference between GET and POST or need a short introduction to Perl. These tutorials, from Selena Sol, are also available at Extropia, which also has links to Perl tutorials for web developers.
WDVL: Request Headers
What's in an http header
CGI A very short overview
CGI Scripts - Writing and Using CGI
Another very elementary introduction to CGI; several short articles to read
Elementary introduction to the technologies you find server-side (ASP, Perl, PHP etc.)
Gentle Introduction to CGI
Also has many links to books and on-line resources. Updated in 2004
The Web Development Environment
An excellent introduction; less cursory than the earlier ones; you will enjoy it more if you have already heard of some of the technologies mentioned (Java, HTTP, etc.) The CGI Programming Made Easy lives up to its name.
Includes some Perl
CGI 101 another great way to get started.
Goes a bit further with Perl than some of the others
CGI Programming on the World Wide Web is the first 4 chapters of the O'Reilly book
w3c.org Introduction to CGI (older)
Other information from w3c about standards also available.
Why learn CGI?
From the people (O'Reilly) who publish a book on the subject - includes kind words about their own (excellent) book; this article is mainly motivational.
The next few articles will actually show you something you can modify and use; for more detailed information you need to go to the section on your language of choice (Perl, PHP or Python)
CGI Developer's Guide
Older, but will get you going
CGI TutorialGood introduction to CGI, environment variables, etc.
Easy introduction to CGI
Another good short introduction
CGI articles oriented towards Perl and more general CGI articles from About.com
There are many articles in the Perl and Web Design section, but you need to know what you want - e.g. guestbook - so you can search for it here.
CGI Tutorials from HTML Goodies
Very well written tutorials, but maybe dated (1/2005). For example, you are more likely to FTP your server scripts to the server than to use telnet.
The Problem of Statelessness
Validating user sessions in PHP
Good introduction to the problem of statelessness; php implementation of solutions
Form validation
Validating a form before sending it to a cgi script - mainly to be sure all fields are filled in.
The following links are to collections of articles
WebKnowHow's Tutorials, articles, scripts and books on CGI
Many (unsorted) links, many to old sites.
Webliography on CGI, Perl, etc.
Great list of links, even though many are to older articles
CGI articles from HTML Goodies
Includes codes for a guest book and for counters
Tutorials on regular expressions. Although some lean towards one language or another, regular expression syntax is pretty much the same in all the scripting languages.
Tutorial on regular expressions
Library of Regular Expressions
Regular expressions tutorial from a Python book; rather telegraphic
How to use regular expressions
Advanced (Perl) Regex tutorials - Part I, Part 2, andand documentation
PHP and regex tutorial
How to do Regex in Python
Regular-expressions Language neutral, but not elementary. Links to books.
Regular expressions and .Net
Regular expressions syntax summary Details subtle differences among languages and Unix variants.
Tutorial on Regular Expressions in Perl Very complete ; from PerlDoc
Documentation on Regular Expressions in Perl
Regular Expressions Fast and dirty reminder about regular expressions
Server-Side Includes
Tutorial on Server-side includes
Older (1995 article, last in 2002) but author says basic principles still apply
Links to many resources of Server-side includes
Including tutorials
More links to article and tutorials on server-side includes

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Perl - see also CGI folder

Downloading PERL - ActivePerl  (free ) and mod_perl

You want to write your scripts in Active Perl; mod_perl is the Perl interpreter which comes free with your Apache web server

ActiveState - ActiveState products open source programming languages tools
Download site for ActivePerl
ActivePerl User Guide
In table of contents, look for "Getting Started" to see how run example.pl
Also open it in Notepad
ActivePerl Help - Online Docs : Getting Started
ActivePerl Help - Online Docs : ActivePerl FAQ
ActiveState also has PHP, Python and XSLT products
mod_perl: everything you need to know
Perl tutorials and resources include:
4 videos from the Indian Institute of Technology
CPAN is the official repository for Perl libraries and also has links to Perl tutorials and other resources
Picking up Perl a slightly older tutorial for those who prefer an introduction to Perl which discusses the language features.
The official documentation for Perl
php site and php IDE and developer tools available from Sourceforge.net, which also has Perl IDEs etc.

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PERL Documentation, Tutorials and Resources

Tutorials- general
For tutorials on regular expressions please see the CGI section.
learn.perl.org: The site for people learning Perl.
Good listing of current books at all levels
Picking up Perl
Easy to use reference. More complete than elementary tutorials. 'The weekend crash course' is available through Books 24x7 e.g. at many university libraries or if you are a member of ACM.
CGI and Perl Tutroial
Another easy place to start, especially if you want all the facts quickly.
Beginning Perl Tutorial
Great place to start. From pageresource
CGI 101
Perl tutorial with focus on CGI; a quick start and good description of the environment variables
Web Programming with Perl and CGI
One of my favorites; they also have a Perl 5 Tutorial with emphasis on object oriented features and a version which links up with Java
Perl tutorial
Older, but still a good introduction.
CGI Programming Made (Relatively) Easy Using LIbraries
Another good place to start
Tizag Tutorial on Perl
Another fine place to begin learning Perl; has information on interfacing with databases, too, and chomp
Webmonkey tutorials on Perl, CGI, etc.
Perl primers from HTML Goodies
The Perl You Need To Know
Includes information on cookies and linking up to databases
Perl Monks has many tutorials
These range from the elementary to the advanced.
The useful site is very large, and, newbies will find it be easier to start with one of the places above (e.g. from pagereource.com).
Everything you ever wanted to know about perl's module cgi.pm
From Lincoln Stein, who wrote the cgi module
Tutorial on Using Modules
CGI Resources
Links to many tutorials, references, sources of scripts
The Fool's Guide to CGI.pm
Nice introduction with usefule examples, for folks who can read easy regex
Perl Tutorial from Perl.com, the O'Reilly site
For those who are sophisticated programmers and want to start in Perl
Perldoc has intermediate level tutorials
CGI Developer's Guide
Short introduction with examples for people who know what they're doing
Tutorials related to Perl and Databases
Tutorial on databases and their perl interface
A gentle introduction
Database programming with Perl
Interfacing MySQL with Perl
O'Reilly book chapter
Down the Perl/DBI module to interface with MySQL
FreeBSD on accessing a database from Perl
Tutorial on Perl MySQL functions
This is from thescripts.com, where you may also post questions to the developer community for various scripting languages and databases.
Tutorial on Using Perl etc. to write software for genome research
Includes such topics as subroutines and @_ and interfacing with databases as well as a good list of books
Documentation and Resources
Perl Documentation at Perl.org and at perldoc.perl.org
Current release is Perl5; (documentation for Perl4 is at CMU)
Perldoc has documentation for the CGI Library of Perl, and there is a reference to the various methods at in CPAN
including for older versions
Also a cheat sheet for novices.
Where to find MODULES to add many useful functions to your Perl - e.g. the standard module, oraperl (for Oracle databases) etc. Also how Install CPAN Modules
Perl.com: The Source for Perl - perl development, perl conferences
Articles etc. for serious PERL programmers from the O'Reilly book folk
About.com's info on building and installing Perl modules
They also link to more of thier own tutorials and other Perl resources.
CGI-LIB.pl homepage
Library of CGI scripts in Perl; Also directly accesible at Berkely
Includes documentation, source files, examples, etc.
Documentation for Perl CGI Module
Documentation is readable and it is easy to find what you are looking for.
Downloading and installing additional Perl modules
Google groups on Perl
This site includes several very useful groups (see green links ): one for Perl beginners, another on Perl modules, and another for miscellaneous Perl questions.
Can not be recommended enough.  Search for key words in the Perl beginners group, for example, and then follow the whole thread (link in the upper right).
Excellent resource.
Perl community: many groups, mailing lists and sites
CGI and Perl FAQs
In addition to the FAQs, has a great list of books and other resources.
Scripts for Perl
This is the Mother of Perl site ; intermediate to advanced articles
ActiveState -
Build a custom installation of Perl and check system requirements - see warning on RedHat Linux v8
Perl libraries for www interactions - e.g. HTTP etc.
Parsing XML documents with Perl's XML::Simple
PERL module which has an XML parser (written in PERL)
Documentation on param() and CGI
Older but still valid; info is otherwise not easy to find

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Perl Examples, Scripts, Hints

Decoding CGI form data in Perl scripts
Reading CGI Data From Perl Scripts
A Perl script that reads and parses CGI data
Matt's Script Archive, Inc. :: Free Perl CGI Scripts
Links for free scripts
Scripts.com has many Perl, PHP, ASP and JavaScript scripts
Open The Crypt / Joe's Free CGI Scripts From The Crypt / www.getcruising.com
More free scripts
Perl Meets Bio-informatics 
From O'Reilly - perhaps because they've published a book on this topic
Template Toolkit for template procesing
Perl and XML
How to embed XML in an HTML Page
To edit all scripts with one line of Perl

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Please also check the Multiple Langauges listings in the General CGI section
The main PHP site
Home site for php, including documentation, download of php processor, and tutorial
PHP Tutorial - from its makers
PHP: Introduction and Manual
Zend makes PHP interpreters, etc
Their DevZone subsite also linkes to articles, tutorials as does the getting started page. and at zendphp.net
Implementing Patterns within PHP
What can PHP do?
Commentary from the PHP folks
PHP tutorial from w3schools
Always an excellent start; includes lessons on interfacing with XML, MySQL and AJAX.
Working with PHP datatypes
Several short tutorials. Gets you going quickly. PHP -Entry Point - Lesson One includes some information on pro's and con's; links to to various PHP sites
PHP4 tutorial So it is missing PHP5's support for objects
How to handle forms in PHP
Extract XML document statistics with PHP
Using PHP to extract stats about XML documents.
Google help group on PHP installation etc.
Apache guide to installing and configuring PHP with Apache
Large site with downloads for PHP development, forums, etc.
U. of Minnesota Duluth
Large excellent set of PHP resources including tutorials, articles on regex, using PHP with databases, and PHP and Ajax.
Validating user sessions in PHP
Tips on Debugging in PHP
Unit Testing in PHP is the current PEAR site for unit testing.
This is also available at older sites see for both PHP5 and PHP4. The most current site includes a tutorial on writing (regression) tests.
Simpler testing utilities are available for JUnit both from JUnit and from SourceForge.
SourceForge has PHP Port testing and also testing for mock objects.
LastCraft provides unit, mock objects, and navigation testing (including for cookies and forms.)
Implementing Design Patterns in PHP
PHP Projects at SourceForege
DevX Resources and Script in PHP
Well categorized, but many have very few scripts
DevPlug is a PHP Developer's Forum
PHP Resource Index
Scripts, snippets of code, and tutorials; large site, hierarchically organized

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Whetting Your Appetite
Python tutorial
What is Python
Also follow the links on the right hand side
More on why Python
From the horse's mouth
Tutorial on Python from Developer.com

And More

ASP Tutorial
from w3schools - usually excellent introduction
Implement a flexible shopping cart with XML and ASP

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XML, Web Services, and Related Technologies


XML Articles, documentation and tutorials

Book and Documentation

Inside XML by Steve Holzner published by New Riders 2000
Excellent for both learning and as a reference; includes XSL and useful material on interfaces with Java and JDOM and SAX
XML and Web Services Unleashed by Ron Schmelzer, Travis Vandersypen, Jason Bloomberg, and Madhu Siddalingaiah published by SAMS 2002
Another boook useful for learning and as a reference; many examples; note that this book includes web services
Charles F. Goldfarb's XML Handbook, 5 Edition by Charles F. Goldfarb and Paul Prescod published by Prentice Hall 2003
Includes some material on web services; for a long time this was the standard; well-written, it is still very useful
Learning XML, Second Edition by Erik T Ray published by O'Reilly 2003
More of a book to learn from than the ones above; very clear
XML 1.1 Bible by Elliotte Rusty Harold published by IDG 2004
Includes coverage of CSS, but very limited coverage of important topic of schemas, so I would use the other books first.
W3C HTML Home Page
XML homepage from the w3c
Includes description of the many working groups and links to them, to various languages specifications and versions, and to many other resources.
XML Schemas
What are the components of an XML Schema and here their definition in a DTD
Chart of Built-In DataTypes
XML Recommendations Homepage
XML Specs
XML Namespaces
The Cover Pages
Important collection of on-line reference material on SGML/XML languages and various standards, now hosted by OASIS. You may want to start at About XML Cover Pages. Site is for the knowledgeable (except possibly the news stories on front page).
DTD's attributes

Tutorials and Articles - Note:  Tutorials on SOAP and WSDL are under the 'Web Services' heading, but information on SAX, DOM, JDOM etc. is here

XML Tutorial from w3schools
Great introductory tutorial. See also their description of XML syntax
Wonderful set of links to tools, tutorials, and many resources for XML
Also has info on links to databases and server-side uses of XML
Tutorials on everything from HTML to XML with good search function.
XML.com: XML From the Inside Out -- development, resources, specifications
O'Reilly site with many articles
What is XML? From HTMLGoodies.com
XML Terms
What the basic terms mean
Tutorials on XML from About.com Very basic
Usual excellent introduction from w3schools.com
IBM introduction is excellent.
An older IBM tutorial has a great description of DTDs.
IBM has a fine set of resources for newbies as well as many tutorials on XML related topics
eXtropia has a good introductory tutorial
EduTecWiki has a short introduction
With information about DTDs
4 short intorductory videos from Derek Banas start here
A longer more recent videos using eclipse are also available.
Why XML is important in 2 short IBM videos
Hour long, wonderful, careful discussion of XML from the Indian Institute of Technology
XML Namespaces
Introductory tutorial from the About.com site
XML Schema Primer from w3.org --
Very good, especially if you know a little bit. Three pieces:
PrimerStructures  and DataTypes   
XFront has links to many great tutorials -
including ones on XML SchemaCanonical XML, Best Practices etc. and also XSDs for all countries, all currencies, etc.  Great source! This is from Roger Costello (one of the authors of the w3c.org Primer) and is a great resource.
Tutorial from Roger Costello on Best Practices for XML Schema
Another link to the same tutorial
Zvon tutorials on many XML related topics
Tutorials on XML, Schemas, Namespaces, XPath and XSLT, RDF, XInclude, XUL etc.
DevGuru tutorials
Tutorials tend to be oriented towards using Microsoft technology rather than standards based
Tutorials from the ACM There are several
The next group of tutorials is from IBM:
Tutorial on understanding SAX
Tutorial on DOM
Manipulating XML in Java (see also a search for JDOM) Tutorial looks at SAX, DOM, JDOM and JAXP
More tutorials from IBM Many are quite advanced
Java and JDOM tutorial
Introspection for XML data to map it to Java Beans; advanced.
Reading and Writing XML in .Net
.NET and XML: XSD Schemas Tutorial on schemas

Other resources - after you know a bit

The w3c has links to all its working groups
For example, the Schema Working Group homepage
You can also find new Technical Reportss by date, title, etc.
Link to Xerces parser, implementations of XSL, etc. A very important site
TECFA's huge set of links on XML
Enormous and very useful set of links on validators and parsers, XML, XSL etc, and, tutorials and news about XML languages.
XML Developer Center Home
Microsoft's XML developer center, including articles, novice to advanced, and links
Open Source Web Development - Dev Shed
Articles on XHTML,CSS, XML, Perl, etc.
Developer.com articles on XML and related technologies
Current and clear articles
Links from Moller and Schwartzbach book
Useful links for everything to do with XML and Web Technologies, tho' it looks like most are not for newbies
JARS Automatic Resource Listing
Java class to automate the encoding of properties from Java into XML
Everything you always wanted to know about SAX (and XmlReader)
When to use SAX and when to use DOM
Application Design: Use DOM to create data-driven HTML documents
Using DOM to get conditional XML
Database Configuration, the XML Alternative
Configuring / designing your database with XML
An open unmoderated discussion list on development of various XML languages;
Now managed by OASIS.  For the knowledgeable.
Perl and XML
How to embed XML in an HTML Page
XML Tools
Long and wonderful list from w3.org
Free XML Tools
By platform, or vendor or name etc.
Alphaworks is IBM's site
This is the link for xml; many links to subtopics and tutorial on newer technologies (e.g. AJAX)
XML as architecture
Interesting view of the ubiquity and power of XML
XML and Java and the Document Object Model
This IBM site has many links to tutorials, information and documentation on using Java to manipulate XML files, etc.  Very valuable.
XML meets JavaScript in Firefox
Series of articles on using JavaScript to maninpulate XML; many Firefox1.5 issues
There are related articles in the Mozilla deveoper forum.
Manipulating XML in Java (see also a search for JDOM)
Tutorial looks at SAX, DOM, JDOM and JAXP
XML files tend to get very large
Which can cause problems ? which some companies have worked on
See also Business Communications Review on this topic
Microsoft's DOM validator from XML
Courtesy of w3schools.
Checklist for well-formed XML
XML Canonical Form
Canonical form standardizes possible equivalent renditions of XML to one (canonical) form; this is important for checking digital signatures, etc. In addition to the subject in the title, there is a link to Ogbuji's Thinking XML columns at IBM?s developerWorks .
Canonical XML
Very clear tutorial from Roger Costello at xfront.com
Xforms Working Draft from w3c.org
More powerful handling of data and events than with HTML forms
See also their XForms for HTML Authors
Will XForms Matter? Especially as HTML5 has taken over the momentum from XHTML
Fight over XForms clouds future of Net
See also links on XUL at Mozilla.org and on Flash MX in the Miscellaneous section below
w3c addresses addressing in XML

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XML discusses XHTML

XHTML 1.0: The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition)
Discussion of XHTML1.0 as a re-formulation of HTML
XHTML Frequently Answered Questions
FAQs about why bother going to XHTML
XHTML 1.1 - Module-based XHTML
XHTML1.1 which is now a strict reformulation of HTML in XML
XHTML Modularization Overview
See how HTML (XHTML) is formulated in an XML DTD
There are several DTDs (depending on the version of XHTML you want 
XHTML tag index
See also the section on XHTML

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XMLSpy and Other Parsers

Download Trial Edition of XMLSpy Tools
XMLSpy is a wonderful tool, and you may try their tools for 30 days free.
Altova also makes tools for XSL (Stylevision) and for RDF editing (Semantic Works) .
There are free academic licenses available, and there is excellent documentation and a brief tutorial.
Link to Xerces XML parser, (API in C++, Java or Perl) at Apache. Constantly evolving. Links to other XML-related tools on Apache Homepage
TopXML: Learn about XML Parsers
XML parsers including Microsoft's and Other Parsers with links and brief descriptions for many XML parsers.
StylusStudio offers a free trial of their parser
Like Altova (XMLSpy) they also have XL and XQuery engines, etc.
JXMLPad - ZDNet Downloads
Module (in Java) to edit XML and XHTML
JARS Automatic Resource Listing
XML/XSLT editor (java based)
Parsing XML documents with Perl's XML::Simple
PERL module which has an XML parser (written in PERL)
Scholarly Validator
Free on-line validator from Brown University for small files
Simple parser at w3schools
Parser Validator in Perl from SourceForge site
Parser in PHP
This parser does not validate; php.net also has tools to create your own parser.
Many XML Tools
ZDNet has a listing of many XML tools for Windows, often with free trials.
css.nu maintains a list of validating browsers
XSmiles is an XML borwser for exotic devices
StAX, an alternative to SAX for Java programmers

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XSL / XSLT including XPath

0XSL/XSLT and XPath - Articles, documentation and tutorials

Why both CSS and XSL - which should I use?
From w3c - who brought you both standards
When to use CSS (whenever you can) and when to us XSL (when you must)
XSL from the w3c
What are the components of XSL (XSLT, XPath, etc.)? Useful but complicated
Overview of XSLT and XPath is also helpful
Of course, there are XSL Specs
XSL Transformations (XSLT)
w3.org documentation on XSLT
Web Style Sheets
w3c on style sheets - CSS and XSL
The Extensible Stylesheet Language Family (XSL)
Links to specs, tutorials, and articles on XSL, XSLT etc.
XSLT client-side
Simple introduction, but you'll need the www.w3schools.com or other tutorial to go further
Tizag tutorial on XSLT (and earlier one on XPath)
Like the w3schools tutorials, this is a gentle introduction.
Cient-side XSLT: Not just for server geeks any more
Good introduction
How to translform XML into XHTML
XSL Homepage of w3c
Including links to XPath, XQuery, XSLT, XSL-FO etc.
There is a large list of links to specs on all these languages, mailing lists, and software.
A great starting place for these technologies.
You can also find links to examples of XSL style sheets (e.g. at TopXML)
Style Activity Statement Gives status of various projects on style sheets - including CSS and XSL
XSL - Computerworld
What XSL is and why you should use it. Good start. See also Additional resources about XSL: Books and links on XSLT
Spinning Your Code with XSLT and JSF in Cocoon
Using XSLT with Java Beans etc. Advanced.
Multi-part tutorial: Discover the Wonders of XSLT
Part 1 -XSLT Good introduction to XSLT itself
Part 2: XPath
Part 3 of 3: Advanced Techniques: Tests and advanced techniques
Part 4: XSLT Quirks
Part 5: Workflows and multiple documents
Understanding the XPath Data Model
XPath data model and how it works, with links to info on infosets. Not for beginners
XPath and XSL tutorials
From w3schools.org  I think this is one of the clearest of the introductory tutorials.
Tizag also has clear introductory tutorials on XPath and XSLT
Learning XSLT has implications for CSS
Tutorial; main interest is using CSS to style XML in browsers
Tutorial on XSLT 2.0
Norman Walsh has also posted related tuorials on XPath etc.
XPath tutorial with links to examples on the left side. From Zvon
XPath Tutorial From TopXML
Several XSLT Tutorials
Their home page also has links to books and other resources for XSL and CSS.
Mozilla maintains a lot of information on XPath and XSL
What's New in XPath 2.0?
The primary purpose of XPath is to address parts of an XML document. XPath uses a compact, non-XML syntax to facilitate use of XPath within URIs and XML attribute values. XPath gets its name from its use of a path notation as in URLs for navigating through the hierarchical structure of an XML document.
Java JAXP, Writing Java Code to Emulate an XSLT Transformation
Emulating XSLT transformations in Java
XSLT and Java Server Faces
Introduction to XPath
.NET and XML: XPath Queries Tutorial
About.com tutorial on XSLT
Also has tutorial on ASP
Facilitating Teamwork with XML and XSL
XSL-FO - Extensible Stylesheet Language Formatting Objects
NOTE: XSL-FO is the old name for XSLT
XSL-FO for formatting objects
Using FO with Java tutorial
Introduction to XSL - XSL, XSLT, XPath, and XSL Formatting Objects
Introduction to XSL
Many examples of XML, XSL, VML and related technologies
Java and XSLT

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Tools and implementations of XSLT

Contemporary browsers all implement XSL for rending documents in a browser.
These links are for more general implementations of XSL.
Free implementation of XSLT written in java
JARS Automatic Resource Listing
XML/XSLT editor (java based)
How to transform XML into XHTML
Stylus Studio sells a full line of tools for XML, XSLT, etc.
Many XML Tools
ZDNet has a listing of many XML tools for Windows, often with free trials.
XMLSpy includes an XSLT engine
Microsoft tool to create XSLTs to go from their WordProcessingML to their OpenXML form

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Specific extended MLs - MathML etc and also RDF and RSS

Note: This is XML and security first, then RDF and RSS, XML and Databases, then MathML and Amaya, XML in the financial services industry and then miscellaneous.
The Semantic Web, Web 2.0, AJAX, mashups etc. are in their own section.

XML Security and Encrpytion

Trusting and verifying
Which comes first
w3c has many resources
WS-Security is the specification for web services security
This is from OASIS
XAMCL stands for eXtensible Access Mark-up Control Language
This is Sun's implementation and programmer's guide
On-going news on Sun's implementation of XAMCL
SAML is one standard for secure web services
From w3.org, of course.
SAML stands for Security Assertion Mark-up Language
Security with SAML and XACML
This area is still changing ? suggest you search the w3.org site for these two extensions.
Encryption working group at w3.org
XML Encryption Added to Apache Project
Security issues and XML
Requires free login at ZDNet

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RDF - or Resource Description Framework - is a resource for describing catalogs

RDF Primer from w3.org
RDF Spec from w3.org
RDF is of interest to librarians, etc.
RDF Validator from w3c.org
Mozilla site on RDF
And some examples
Zvon tutorials on many XML related topics
Tutorials on XML, Schemas, Namespaces, XPath and XSLT, RDF, XInclude, XUL etc.
Relational databases on the semantic web and RDF
See also Tim Berners-Lee paper which started this subject

RSS - or Really Simple Syndication -  is how an XML feed is used to update news and blogs continuously.

What is RSS?
From O'Reilly - good casual introduction; includes a sample to get you started
What is RSS?
From webreference.com - lots of information
An introduction to RSS
RSS Syndication and Aggregation
Web references on RSS
RSS monitors (new) content on sites and feeds it to subscribers. May also be used for on-going education.
Scripts for Perl and RSS
Mother of Perl site
Exploring RSS and XML in Flash
RSS Feed for site listing free xml tools
And DTD for the above
RSS Enclosure exposure or pod-casting
An audio RSS feed
How to create your own RSS news feed
From w3.org, but with a quick 'cheat sheet' on how to do it
IBM maintains a site called alphaworks
This site provides current information about RSS and other new technologies
Mozilla site on RSS
All the following information on RSS is from one of my students:
Scripting news ? by Dave Winer; Winer designed this format at Userland and uses it in his blog
The history of RSS
RSS 2.0 Spec
How to set up a RSS channel
Using RSS 0.9
Clear explanation, tho? RSS 2.0 is current spec
RSS Aggregators  / readers
Full list at http://blogspace.com/rss/readers
Mac OS X: NetNewsWire (http://ranchero.com/netnewswire/)
Windows: SharpReader (http://www.sharpreader.net)
Linux: Straw (http://www.nongnu.org/straw)
Web: Bloglines (http://www.bloglines.com)
RSS Validators:
     FeedValidator.org (http://feedvalidator.org/)
     UserLand's validator (for 0.9x only) (http://rss.scripting.com/
Selected Sites with RSS Feeds:
     British Broadcasting Corporation (http://news.bbc.co.uk/shared/bsp/hi/services/htmlsyndication/html/default.stm)
     DevX (http://www.devx.com/DevX/Article/16190)
     LiveJournal Syndicated Feeds (http://www.livejournal.com/syn/list.bml)
     United States Department of Defense (http://www.dod.gov/news/rss/)
     WebReference.com (http://www.webreference.com/services/news/)
     For a more exhaustive list, go to the RSS Compendium (http://allrss.com/rssfeeds.html)
      IBM?s RSS feed on weather
Quick Start on RSS
Requires free registration, but worth it
RSS Tutorial fromContent Publishers and Webmaster
Gentle introduction with links to more advanced information
RSS Workshop from U. of Utah
Links to places to learn how t create your own feed in the language of your choice; lots of examples
WebKnowHow articles on RSS
O'Reilly has articles on RSS
Also check out their tutorials which are less basic than the ones above
Support for CSS poor in most RSS readers (7/06)
Building a Generic RSS Class in PHP
Requires some knowledge of MySQL and PHP,/dd>
Working with RSS and Oracle JDeveloper
If you prefer Oracle and Java
Expand RSS capabilities with RSS extensions<.a>

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XML and Databases, including XQuery; Please also see RDF

XQuery for database querying at w3c.org
This is now the standard.
XQuery Tutorial from w3schools.com
What is XQuery?
Introduction at O'Reilly site xml.com
XQuery tutorial
Slides that are now part of book An Introduction to XML and Realted Technologies by Moller and Schwartzbach
An Introduction to XQuery
A look at the w3c schema with many links to other resources
Using XML with Databases Tutorial
SQLX.org is devoted to SQL and XML working together
Because SQL is an ISO standard its specs are copyrighted; a copy may be bought through SQLX/
XML Programming with SQL and XML
Excellent and comprehensive article
XViews for implementing Views on XML databases
This is an IBM research paper, not a w3c standard.
The web standard has moved to RDF (see above) and the Data Access Language (next item).
The Data Access Working Group has developed an RDF query language to be interoperable with SQL
It is also working on issues of querying on the semantic web
Relational Databases on the Semantic Web
Does RDF implement E-R? by Tim Berners-Lee
Integrating web services with SQL Server
Also using the SQLXML classes
XML and DB2
And more on this and IBM's SOA plans
XMLSpy includes an XQuery engine
Oracle's site has many articles on XML and databases
Example: Oracle version of XQuery and Using XQurey with XSL

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MathML and Amaya

Home page at w3.org
Includes a complete description of MathML
Amaya Home Page
Web authoring tool which includes support for MathML
MathML in Mozilla
A rich resource, including transling from TEX, SOAP interfaces, etc.

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Financial Service Industry

XML in the Financial Services Industry
A good introduction to eBXML, XBRL, FIXML, MDDL, FpML, and assorted standards groups for this industry
InfoWorld: XBRL: A case study in complexity:
How BusinessReportingML became too complex to work - good case study in design
ebXML: Introducing the Vision
What is eBXML? (hint: e is electronic and B is for Business) Follow links at bottom for series of articles - for whole series of articles
XBRL to Sharpen Banks' Biz Reports
XBRL (eXtended Business Reporting Language) must be used by banks and other public companies (per Sarbanes-Oxley Law) to consolidate units when they report their financial results; will also migrate to internal reports.
XML Variant to Ease Financial Reporting
How XMRL will help
Sarbanes-Oxley: Road to Compliance
What's involved in compliance for Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) from an IT point of view
SOX compliance is a big topic.
Resilient: Making processes into objects - News - ZDNet
BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) for the non-techie
InfoWorld: Is BPEL the real deal?:
An introduction to ebXML
The interaction of eBXML and Web Services
UBL, or Universal Business Language
Uses XML to define a vocabulary for common business forms, such as purchase orders etc.
It is also designed to work with eBXML

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Miscellaneous: VoiceML, XUL, WML (wireless), etc.

XML Technolgies
Short descriptin of the main ones
MetaMap of All the XML Technolgies
A wonderful map of how these are all related and what the acronyms mean
Add XML functionality to your Flash movies
A markup language for designing GUIs
XUL is Mozilla's Language for designing user interfaces and widgets.
And they provide a tutorial
Links to books on VoiceXML etc.
Introduction to WML from About.com
WML is Wireless Mark-up Language
Wireless Web Initaitive at w3c.org
Mastering Wireless Programming: First Steps in C++ or C#
Microsoft?s XML Visio Schemas
An evolving specification for including &merging XML documents
Not surprisingly it works only with schemas (no DTDs)
Here is a brief introduction
Zvon tutorials on many XML related topics
Tutorials on XML, Schemas, Namespaces, XPath and XSLT, RDF, XInclude, XUL etc.
Primer on OpenXML (Microsoft) and Open Document Format (everone else)
OpenXML for Open documents format - vs. Microsoft (3/06)
OpenXML gaining (4/06... especially after acceptance by ECMA
ODF (Open Docment Format) is accepted by OASIS and supported by IBM
Translator to go between Microsoft?s OpenXML and Open Document Format (ODF) (7/06)
Microsoft?s plug-in for conversions from Office To OpenXML (7/06)
Google behind ODF; You should also check out Massachusetts?s push for ODF.
Many XML Tools
ZDNet has a listing of many XML tools for Windows, often with free trials.

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Web Services

Please note that many links related to web services - e.g. security, mobile web, etc. are in section directly above.
Choreography and BPEL are in this section.

Web Services - general information; what is SOA, etc.

Overview of Web Services
A brief overview; not much detail; links to implementing web services with Java on Linux
What are web services?
The 'home' links to many articles about web services
Client and server terms defined
Web Service Demos from Mindreef.net.
Fun to try.
w3c.org definition of a web service
This is in their document on web service architecture.
MetaMap of how the different technologies are related
May be more useful after you know a little about the area, and then invaluable
There is also an information page.
Relationship of Web Service's Major Components
Simpler than the MetaMap; good place to start, then go to MetaMap
This site also has an excellent glossary
What is a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)?  What are Web Services?
Very good introduction to SOA, for those who already know the lingo.  8 pages!
SOA (without web services) in plain language
The difference between SOA and Web Services'
InfoWorld: Web services alphabet soup: Application Development
Web services alphabet soup - and modularity
The Web Services Family Tree
Understanding Service-Oriented Architecture
Great introduction (actually a book chapter). 'Composition' has the same meaning as composition of functions in math - i.e. one followed by another
Web Services Explained
Another book excerpt, slightly less detailed than the previous one
Web Services Architecture
Although this claims to describe only IBM's architecture, it is a good description of all the web service architectures.
Web Services Architecture
Description of basic and more complex web services stacks; covers major vendors: Sun, IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, HP, BEA and Borland
Web Services Essentials
From Sun, this emphasizes a role for Java. Of course, designed to be platform neutral, web service may be implemented in other languages, too.
Introduction to Web Services
Very clear, but basic. From Altova, creators of XMLSpy. Starts general and then moves to their tool
Service Oriented Architecture: How and Why
Arguments of for IT managers and why SOA is the way to go. Good survey
New Rules Govern the SOA Lifecycle
As Ye SOA So Shall Ye Reap
Humorous story
Fuzzy boundaries: Objects, Components and Web Services
Which to use when; further discussion with authors
Web Services Hurdles
Including security and reliability
Also cultural changes and peoples' customs
Quality control issues
No warranties, or QoS issues
Securty issues, which OASIS has several initaitves on
Performance issues as files get larger and larger
The Rise and Fall of CORBA
What we can learn from CORBA, one of the ancestors of web services
The Top 5 Myths about SOA
Capitalizing on SOA
Good discussion of SOA patterns, philosophy, pros and cons
TestingQuality in an SOA
Close the loop:Using SOA to automate human interaction
With specific detailed example
White Papers from Ziff Davis
Including on ROI, strategies for success, costs and benefits, how to adopt etc.
Four Steps to SOA
Building SOA Your Way
Making it work for you; case studies
Finding Your Way to SOA
Sun introduction in either a business or technical version
SOA: Integrating Applications
Case studies of who did what and how much they saved

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Web Services: Books and Documentation

Please note that standards in this area are issued by both W3C (for XML and many of its extensions, SOAP, WSDL) and OASIS (for UDDI and ebXML, WS_Trust, etc.) and sometimes jointly. WS-I (Web Services Interoperability Organization) is also starting to develop standards. There is overlap in the membership of these organizations.

The Executive's Guide to Web Services by Eric A. Marks and Mark J. Werrell pubblished by Wiley, 2003
A lot of managerial discussion of thadvantages of SOA, but a very clear description of the protocol stacks and what each part of web servicces does
Understanding Web Services by Eric Newcomer, Addison Wesley, 2002
Understanding SOA with Web Services by Eric Newcomer, Greg Lomow, Addison Wesley, 2004
Excellent introductions; second book is an update of the first
Web Services Essentials by Ethan Cerami published by O'Reilly 2002
, Excellent look at enough of the technology so you understand what is really happening; also detailed information about installing and interfacing with the server if you will be responsible for that too
XML Protocols Matrix
Who is in charge of what protocol
Web Services Architecture from w3c.org
Web Services Addressing Standards: Core
And SOAP Binding
Explanation of what the addressing standard do
Standards to Improve Performance released Feb 2005
Another discussion of same release
Web Services Polcies
w3c compares their version with that from IBM and Microsoft
Includes discussion of how to specify Quality of Service (QoS)
Table of all policy groups and standards on web services at w3c.org
WS-I is also working on standards
WS-I, a consortium of major software provides such as IBM, SAP, and Microsoft has an asynchronous messaging standard.
OASIS is working on standards for SOA protocols
They have issued standards on UDDI, reliability, security, transactions, and eBXML
They develop the UDDI Specs
They also have three security related standards: for exchanging secuirty related information (with SAML), for secure web services and for secure exchange of multiple messages
OASIS also codifies the specifications for Web Service Management (WSDM), which includes both Mangement of Web Services (MOWS) and Management Using Web Servises (MUWS).
The WSDM homepage links (near the bottom) to primers on both MOWS and MUWS.
Web Service Modeling Ontlology and the Semantic Annotations for WSDL Working Group
are developing standards for semantic web servcies
Links to SOAP, Web Services and related specifications
Unfortunately last updated in 9/05

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Web Services: Articles and Tutorials

General or multi-topic

Web Services Primer
Excellent place to start; from O'Reilly and XML.com; many links at bottom of article
Web Services Architecture
Although this claims to describe only IBM's architecture, it is a good description of all the web service architectures.
This is a very general article; if you want more information at this level, please look in the section on Web Services - general information.
Web Services tutorial from w3schools
After this tutorial, go to their tutorials on SOAP and WSDL
Web Services
Columns 96 to 106 (each of which is multi-page) includes coverage of calling web services from IE and of writing DTDs for XML.
MetaMap of how the different technologies are related
May be more useful after you know a little about the area, and then invaluable
There is also an information page.
xmethod.com tutorials on many tools to implement web services
Web Services
Large collection of articles on Web Services at MSDN. Everything from Web Services Basics to very advanced. For example, start with the XML Web Services Basics or the non- technical See What Web Services Can Do for You and move on to articels on security, problems with SOAP encoding, etc.
Special Issue of CACM on 'Services Science', which includes Web Services: vol. 49, July 2006.
Issue has many articles, including Introduction, Research Manifesto, Understanding Service Sector Innovation, Algorithmic Decomposition of Services, and What we can learn from CORBA, one of the ancestors of web services
Design of Web Services
Thought provoking tutorial from Roger Costello. Costello posts many excellent tutorials here, too.
Web Services: a B2B demonstration
Complete sophisticated example
Combine Polymorphism with Web Services
Understand Web Services Reliable Messaging
DMOZ Direcotry on Web Services and SOAP
Web services, SOA and Application Frameworks
Making them work together to address issues such as scalability, security, and transaction and state management.Links to a reading list on the left. Site, focuses on web services architecture.
Securing Web Services the Low-Tech Way
A gentle Introduction to SOAP
Using WSDL in SOAP Applications from IBM

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Be sure to look in the sections on general information and tutorials (directly aobve) first; this section includes examples and language-dependent/platform-dependent information.

SOAP Primer from w3c
SOAP tutorial from w3schools
Understanding Web Services: Part I SOAP
You need an IBM password for this, so it is good for academic use and those who use IBM products.
Archives of SOAP at Discuss.Develop.com
Discussion list for problems implementing SOAP applications. Searchable
Understanding SOAP
From MSDN. Excellent article for those with some familiarity from more basic entries.
Brief SOAP Primer from above list
Full list of SOAP1.1 Implementations
What is in an HTTP header
Useful reminder as SOAP messages are transported with HTTP
Web Service Demos from Mindreef.net.
You can see the SOAP messages by clicking the Invoke tab and then the Edit/Preview button
AMQP:Advanced Message Queueing Protocol
From Cisco, RedHat, et al; to interoperate with SOAP and other messaging protocols. Stay tuned
SOAP tutorials
About 20 different tutorials with brief comments. Older with some broken links
Try A Busy Developer's Guide to SOAP 1.1
Perl and SOAP
SOAP examples from soaprpc.com
SOAP::Lite for Perl
Includes an excellent Quick Start Guide, which may also be found at O-Reilly's Perl.com site. The O-Reilly version links also to more complicated examples
SOAPLite maintains its own site, with a cookbook
Much of this duplicates the site above, but this one is easier to navigate and includes news.
Client-side SOAP from soapuser.com
Also links to table of SOAP packages for UNIX and Windows and information on server-side SOAP.Good tutorials.
Archives of SOAP at Discuss.Develop.com
Discussion list for problems implementing SOAP applications. Searchable
Zend offers a SOAP implementation with PHP Extension
Devzone at Zend has examples and articles on using PHP and SOAP messaging and AJAX
New articles and tutorials are in the news and tutorials sections respectively.
Also more advanced articles, such as on PHP SOAP extension
Tutorial on Web Services and PHP
NuSOAP, older and now less common, implements SOAP in PHP without PHP extensions
Download NuSOAP at SourceForge.org
Beginner tutorials from NuSOAP originally from Zend; there are also other tutorials available on line.
eZ is another open source SOAP implementation for PHP users
PEAR offers other modules for web services, some of which are described by Builder.com
Java and SOAP
Java and XML: SOAP
Excellent discussion of SOAP and RPC; first half of multi-page book excerpt is general and second half is Java-specific.
Java classes to create the SOAP API
Package from Sun
The Sun ONE Studio 4 tutorial also has a fully worked web services example.
Writing a Handler Class to Process (SOAP)Messages
Web Services Using JavaScript and .NET
Developing Web Services with Borland JBuilder and BEA Web Server
Develop Web Services Using JSF Web service tools in Rational Application Developer
Water is a language designed for rapid protoyping of web services.
Some people are using it for teaching as it is designed to have a short learning curve.
Apache web server
Writing a SOAP client for Apache
The xmethod site also includes a guide to installing Apache SOAP and examples of SOAP services with their WSDL descriptions.
See also Introducing Axis2
Axis2 is the web service framework from Apache. A search at this site will lead you to many articles about Axis2, including Building a non-Java web service on Axis2. These articles explain some fairly sophisticated and complicated examples.
Apache has many web service projects, including SOAP, XML-RPC, and Axis
Apache site for SOAP
Microsoft platform ( as your server platform)
SOAP: Platform-Independent Server Communication from 4GuysFromRolla
SOAP from IE
A Young Person's Guide to SOAP
What SOAP is and how it is better than CORBAS and DCOM
Microsoft's .NET SDK
This replaces Microsoft's SOAP Toolkit 3.0, officially retired in3/05 and on extended support until 3/08; Also see How to Migrate to the .Net Framework

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Introducing WSDL
Tutorial from Altova; first few slides are general and then moves to using XMLSpy to create WSDL documents.
WSDL Tutorial from w3schools
This is the most detailed of the 3 basic introductions listed here.
Writing WSDL Short, basic and clear
Understanding WSDL
Excellent detailed explanation from MSDN. Easier if you read one of the previous entries first. From Aaron Skonnard, one of the authors of the book Essential XML
XMethods lists many webservices available publicly for demos and examination.
It is helpful to work through several. Highlighted links allow you to examine the WSDL entry and try it.(See also the full list of these services.)
For example, Weather - Temperature is an easy place to start. .(Cape Clear offers a more complex global version of this.)
US Yellow Pages , with its WSDL entry, is more complicated as it provides several web services in one WSDL.
Web Service Demos from Mindreef.net.
You can see the WSDL by clicking on the Analyze tab.
WSDL Editors
Article is from 12/02, but many of these (e.g. XMLSpy from Altova and the one from Cape Clear) are still popular. Tools from are more recent.

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UDDI4J IBM's open source implememntation for UDDI with Java interfaces
IBM, Microfot SAP had problems implemmenting UDDI 12/05
UDDI-based models of eCommerce
First read An Introduction to eBusiness with eBXML and web services and eBXML:the vision

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Choreography, BPEL and REST

w3c Group on Choreography
Choreography refers to sequences of web services interactions
There is a Overview of the Choreography Model
and a Requirements document,
Choreography Description Language and a Primer for it.
Understanding ebXML, UDDI, XML/EDI
eBXML and BPEL and modeling business processes
SOAP vs eBXML for complex transacations
W3C Inks Key Web Services Language
To coordinate a series of services - WS-CDL and also see about BPEL
Language may be used to describe peer-to-peer interactions
Web Services Choreography Description Language  (WS_CDL)
Working draft of language spec from w3.org
Orchestration of Rule-Based Web Services
Web Services Integration Patterns
and more patterns
Reconciling Web Services with REST
REST and the Rest of the World, which follows a description of REST
REST Tutorial from Roger Costello

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Web Services: Other Resources

Links on topics such as web services, WSDL, XML, WS-CDL, etc.
OASIS and its subsidiary XML.org
Also The Cover Pages cover news.
ACM Portal
WS-I - open-source organization to promote web services interoperability
Standards, articles and news
Group of about a dozen providers of enterprise-level software for web services, of which the most notable are CA and Systinet. Lots of news about who signed what deal, but most of the useful information is restricted to members of those companies.
Open Source
Apache Software Foundation
Soucre for Apache server, Tomcat java servlet server, Xerces XML parser and many other packages
Apache web services projects include Axis for SOAP and many others
Major source for over 100,000 open source projects in anormous range of categories
Search for web services and specfic language or environment
Has an entire section on web tools; known primarily for Java IDE, now also offering a PHP IDE and web services tools
IBM runs a number of open source projects, and makes others available on academic license
w3c open source tools
Open Source Web Services Tools in Java
DevShed open source tools
Sources for good articles
Please also check the tools for many topics for a list of newsletters
Mangement of performance of web applications
IBM's alphaworks
Many excellent articles, some very sophisticated, and also RSS feeds on XML, webservices, etc.
IBM's Developer Works
The Web Services and SOA site has many excellent tutorials, articles and technical forecasts, all of high quality. A few of the longer tutorials require an IBM password.
XML.com from 'Reilly
Organized site with entries ranging from blogs to book excerpts. High quality.
O'Reilly also owns Safari on-line books (also available through the ACM if you are a member)
Web Services Architect
Magazine with some news, high quality downloadable articles, links to books and other resources
MSDN or Microsoft Developer Network
General articles and links to their magazine, as well as tutorials on their own products. High quality, but not as many current articles as the IBM sites
Sun Developer Network
Mostly focused on Java and on Sun developer kits, though some more general articles
Google Directory on Web Services
More focused than a straight search; more specifically: FAQs, tutorials, etc.on SOAP, Both IBM and Microsoft offer a sophisticated introduction to SOA and web services.
Many tutorials (for various platforms) and articles
Tutorials and articles from Roger Costello
Mozilla and Web Services
Many articles, including on how to access web services in mozilla agents.
Also check their project page as many projects are related to XML technologies
SOA Systems focus on web service standards and on SOA
Links to SOA Magazine and other resources.
Also useful glossary
News, many links to articles and other resources
Developer.com (Earthweb)
Many useful articles, intermediate to advanced; this links to their web services section; the Gamelan section has articles for java developers.
Primarily news
SearchWebServices is primarily news, but is searchable
eweek and InfoWorld
Regular sources of news for techies; announcements of new standards and products, summaries of conference speeches, etc.
Loosely Coupled
Similar to above, but more technical and with an SOA focus
News and short articles on SOA and Ajax
Application Development Trends
Primarily news; some whitepapers
Ziff Davis Buyer's Guides and White Papers
Downloadable after free registration; oriented towards IT management
Similar to above, but more technical and with an SOA focus
Fusion Zone: SOA is primarily news and managerial-type articles with an Oracle slant
Languages and Tools
WebSphere from IBM
Sun Web Services Developer Kit
XMLSuite, XMLSpy, etc.
Tools for XML, web services, etc. Beautiful interfaces. Academic license available or 30 day trial.
Stylus Studio
Tools for XML, web services, etc. 7-day trial
SOAPLite toolkit for Pearl
SOAP client for PHP
McAfee Shares Internal Web-Services Security Tool
Water language
Mindreef SOAPScope Toolkit
Web services toolkit; free trial
Training for web services
The bottom has links to vendor training, such as that at CapeClear, Systinet,Collaxa, and Grand Central. These sites have lots of information : e.g.tutorials on regular expressions and Java Web Services at CapeClear (you need to search for tutorials; there are many more than are suggested by the tab on their home page), but some require logins.

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Examples of Web Services: Amazon, eBay and Google

Amazon Reaches 50,000-Developer Mark With Its Web Services Program: May 24, 2004
How Amazon has attracted developers to write for the stores which sell on Amazon, or how Amazon Web Services counts itself as having 50,000 developers
Amazon.com : Help / AWS home page
Home page for Amazon Web Services - all you need to know is XML and SOAP
Available here too
Amazon.com : Help / AWS home page / FAQ
Amazon Web Services FAQs - including what services are available etc.
AWS includes a web services platform,
a 'scratch pad' (Turk), a search engine and many e-commerce web servcies.
Amazon's XML Interface.
Amazon Web Services: A Brief Introduction Using PHP - Website Publisher
XML.com: Amazon's Web Services and XSLT.
Article from O'Reilly decribing both the web services and the REST interace to Amazon

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Web 2.0 and Related Technologies

The Semantic Web

Semantic Web initiative at w3c
Microformats a way to add semantic information through annotations
Costello's slides on the subject; as always a clear discussion
IBM has several papers on semantic modeling
A Simple Linkage from Web Services to the Semantic Web

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